1 the act of suffocating (someone) by constricting the windpipe; "no evidence that the choking was done by the accused" [syn: choking, strangling, throttling]
2 the condition of having respiration stopped by compression of the air passage
3 (pathology) constriction of a body part so as to cut off the flow of blood or other fluid; "strangulation of the intestine"
EtymologyLatin from stringere gulam : choking of the neck
Strangling is compression of the neck that leads to unconsciousness or death by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain. Fatal strangling typically occurs in cases of violence, accidents, and as the mechanism of suicide in hangings. Strangling does not have to be fatal; limited or interrupted strangling is practiced in erotic asphyxia, in the choking game, and is an important technique in many combat sports and self-defense systems (see Chokehold).
Strangling can be divided into three general types according to the mechanism used:
- Hanging — Suspension from a cord wound around the neck (see the separate article Hanging)
- Ligature strangulation — Strangulation without suspension using some form of cord-like object
- Manual strangulation — Strangulation using the fingers or other extremity
GeneralStrangling involves one or several mechanisms that interfere with the normal flow of oxygen into the brain:
Depending on the particular method of strangling, one or several of these typically occur in combination, but vascular obstruction is usually the main mechanism. Complete obstruction of blood flow to the brain is associated with irreversible neurological damage and death, but during strangulation there is still unimpeded blood flow in the vertebral arteries. Estimations have been made that significant occlusion of the carotid arteries and jugular veins occurs with a pressure of around 3.4 N/cm², while the trachea demands six times more at approximately 22 N/cm². As in all cases of strangulation, the rapidity of death can be affected by the susceptibility to carotid sinus stimulation. The reported time from application to unconsciousness varies from 7-14 seconds if effectively applied. chokeholds to one minute in some other cases, with death occurring minutes after unconsciousness. Even though the mechanism of strangulation is similar, it is usually distinguished from hanging by the strangling force being something other than the person's own bodyweight. Suicide by ligature strangulation requires that the constriction around the neck be held even after loss of consciousness, which can be accomplished with complicated knots.
Strangulation in popular cultureStrangulation has been a common theme in literature and films, especially in murder mysteries and horror films. It is usually a minor character that gets killed off in this manner.
In The Simpsons, when Homer finds out that his son, Bart has done or said something wrong or stupid, he yells, "Why you little—!" and strangles him in anger. Sometimes he does it for little to no reason at all.
In some of the Star Wars movies, the primary antagonist, Darth Vader, manually strangles his victims or uses The Force to do it with his mind.
Two notable strangulations occur in The Godfather:
- Early in the novel, shortly before Don Vito Corleone is attacked in front of his office, Luca Brasi visits Bruno Tattaglia and Sollozzo in a Tattaglia nightclub. Tattaglia distracts him with a drink and a cigarette, and Sollozzo pins Brasi's hand to the bar with a knife, then an unidentified murderer slips a garotte around Brasi's neck and pulls it tight.
- Near the end, after the climactic baptism scene with its multiple assassinations, Michael Corleone gives Carlo Rizzi a plane ticket and tells him to take a ride to the airport. After Carlo gets into the front seat, Peter Clemenza, in the back seat, says "Hello, Carlo," slips a garotte around his neck, and strangles him.
In the Jack The Ripper based 2001 film, From Hell, John Netley is killed by a garotte near the end of the movie, by one of his former cult colleagues.
The James Bond film The World is Not Enough features a very long sequence in which Pierce Brosnan's Bond is strangled by villainess Electra King in a highly ornate "antique garotte".
- Ohlenkamp, Neil (2006) Judo Unleashed Basic reference on judo choking techniques. ISBN 0071475346.
strangulation in Danish: Strangulation
strangulation in Finnish: Kuristaminen
strangulation in French: Strangulation
strangulation in Polish: Zadzierzgnięcie
strangulation in Portuguese: Estrangulamento
strangulation in Russian: Странгуляция
strangulation in Swedish: Strangulation
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